Treaties Table

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Year SEQ. Yr. Russia Britain France United States Japan Other Results for China Negotiators Neg'n. Sources Text Sources
1689 1689 [Sep. 7] Treaty of Nerchinsk [Nibuchu] • limited acknowledgement of legitimacy of external interests
-initiation of frontier definition
-limitations on tribute conventions
Feodor A. Golovin, So-e-tu, Tong Guogang, A-er-ni, Ma-qi, Ma-la [Gerbillon, Pereira] Mancall: 141ff
1727 1727 [Oct. 21] Treaty of Kiakhta [Haketu] • further definition of frontier
-permission for regular, limited presence in Beijing
-regularization of Siberian frontier trade
Sava L. Vladislavich Lorents Lange Te-gu-te, Tu-li-shen, Cha-bi-na Mancall: 236ff
1841 1841 [Jan. 20] Chuenpi Convention [repudiated by both sides] Capt. Charles Elliott Qi-shan Morse I: 271ff
1842 1842 [Aug. 29] Treaty of Nanking [Nanjing] • recog. of intercourse outside tribute system
-access to new, specified trading centers
-cession of territory [Hong Kong]
-recognition of foreign consular authority
-indemnity preceden
Sir Henry Pottinger Qi-ying Yi-li-bu Morse I: 272ff,288, 297,298ff MacNair I: 166ff
1843 1843 [Oct. 8] Supplementary Treaty of Hu-men-chai [the "Bogue"] • restrictions on tariff autonomy -most-favored-nation concept Sir Henry Pottinger Qi-ying Morse I: 321ff
1844 1 1844 [July 3] Treaty of Wang-hsia [Wangxia] • provision for treaty revision [12 years]
-free employment of Chinese
-right of entry of foreign warships
Caleb Cushing Qi-ying Morse I: 322-30
1844 2 [Oct. 24] Treaty of Whampoa [Huangpu] -recognition of community of interests of Western nations -strengthened extraterritoriality -recognition of foreign rulers as potentially equals [use of l‘Empereur des Francaise] Théodore de Lagrené Qi-ying Morse I: 331ff
1846 1846 [Apr. 4] Guangzhou Convention
1847 1847 [Mar. 20] Sweden/Norway Treaty of Canton [Guangzhou] • recognition of commercial interests of lesser powers Frederick Liljevalch Qi-ying Morse I: 332
1847 Agreement concerning Guangzhou churches
1851 1851 [Aug. 6] Treaty of Kuldja [Ili] -recognition of Russian interests in "Western Regions" Igor P. Kovalevski I-Shan Morse I: 476
1858 1 1858 [May 28] Treaty of Aigun [not ratified] Count Nik. Muraviev Yi-shan Morse I: 477
1858 2 [June 13] Treaty of Tientsin [Tianjin] Count Putiatin Gui-liang Hua-sha-na [Qi-ying] Morse I: 479ff,525
1858 3 [June 18] Treaty of Tientsin [Tianjin] William B. Reed Gui-liang Hua-sha-na
1858 4 [June 26] Treaty of Tientsin [Tianjin] • enforced compliance with existing treaty provisions
-strengthened demands for equality
-concept of permanent embassies
-free access by warships
Lord Elgin Gui-liang Hua-sha-na
1858 5 [June 27] Treaty of Tientsin [Tianjin] Baron J.B. Gros Gui-liang Hua-sha-na
1860 1 1860 [Oct. 24] Peking [Beijing] Convention • resident embassies Lord Elgin Prince Gong Morse I: 612
1860 2 [Oct. 25] Peking [Beijing] Convention Baron J.B. Gros Prince Gong
1860 3 [Nov. 14] Peking [Beijing] Convention -loss of territory between Ussuri and sea ["Maritime Province"] Gen. Nikolai Ignatiev Prince Gong Morse I: 613
1861 1861 [Sep. 2] Treaty with Germany Graf Eulenberg Chong-lun Chong-hou
1863 1863 [July 13] Treaty with Denmark Col. W. von Raaslöff
1868 1868 [July 28] Supplementary [Burlingame] Treaty • freedom to emigrate
Wm. Seward Anson Burlingame [for China] Morse II: 185ff
1869 1869 [Oct. 23] Alcock Convention [not ratified] Sir Rutherford Alcock Prince Gong Wen-xiang, Bao-jun, Dong Xun, Tang Tingxiang, Chong-lun Morse II: 204ff
1871 1871 [Sep. 13] Treaty of Tientsin [Tianjin] -recognition of equality [first for neighbouring country within "East Asian cultural sphere"] -no most-favored-nation or extraterri- toriality arrangements Date Muneki Li Hongzhang
1874 1 1874 [ French Treaty of Saigon [w/ King of Annam] -declaration of French sovereignty over Cochin-China [southern Vietnam] -French recognition of full "independence" of Annam from all foreign powers, granting of French "protection"
1874 2 [Oct. 31] Instrument settling Ryukyu-Taiwan affair -implicit recognition of Japan's claims to Ryukyu's Okubo Prince Gong Morse II: 270ff
1876 1 1876 [Feb 24] Treaty of Kanghwa [Japan-Korea] -declaration of Korea's independence
1876 2 [Sep. 13] Chefoo [Zhifu] Convention [ratified 1885] -opening of southwest frontier trade -sending of mission of apology [Margary] -code of diplomatic etiquette -territorial definition of foreign concessions -successful rejection of specific dem Thomas Wade Li Hongzhang Morse II: 283ff
1879 1879 [Oct. 2] Treaty of Livadia [repudiated by China]
1880 1 1880 [Mar. 31] Supplementary Convention with Germany • agreement that privileges claimed on strength of most
-favored-nation principle came with original treaty conditions intact
1880 2 [Nov. 17] Supplementary Treaty -prohibition of opium trade [by Americans]
1881 1881 [Feb. 24] Treaty of St. Petersburg -regaining of control over much of Ili and Muzart Pass controlling land route into northern Xinjiang, in return for indemnity of 9m metallic roubles Nikolai de Giers Eugène de Butzow Zeng Jize
1884 1884 [ French-Annamese Treaty -France assumes “protection” of over “independent” Annam
1885 1 1885 [Apr. 18] Li-Ito Convention -recognition of Japan's "interests" in Korea [withdrawal of Qing troops; intervention only with notification to Japan] Ito Hakubun Li Hongzhang
1885 2 [June 9] Treaty of Tientsin [concerning Annam] • recognition of French sovereignty over Annam
1886 2 1886 [July 24] Convention concerning Burma & Tibet -recognition of British annexation of Burma [though "decennial" missions might be continued] -agreement that China would not be pressed to open Tibet
1886 1 [Apr. 25] Convention of Tianjin • rules governing Tonkin trade extend implications of recognition
1887 3 [Dec. 1] Sino-Port. Treaty of Lisbon • formal cession of Macao
1887 1 1887 [June 26] Convention of Beijing • definition of Tonkin borders
1887 2 [June 26] Additional Commercial Convention
1890 1890 [Mar. 17] Sikkim-Tibet Convention [w/China] • recognition of British control over Sikkim
-definition of Sikkim-Tibet boundary
1890 Treaty of Chongqing [Chungking]
1894 1894 [Mar. 17] Treaty on Emigration
1895 1 1895 [Apr. 17] Treaty of Shimonoseki Ito Hakubun Mutsu Munemitsu Li Hongzhang Li Jingfang
1895 3 [June 20] Additional Commercial Articles
1895 2 [June 20] Additional Indochina border articles
1896 1896 [Sep. 8] Treaty of Alliance [secret] • Russian support against Japanese expansion on continent
-granting of right to build Chinese Eastern Railway through Manchuria
1898 1 1898 [Mar. 6] Treaty with Germany conc. Kiaochow Bay
1898 2 [Mar. 27] Treaty conc. Luta [Luda]
1898 4 [July 6] Treaty concerning South Manchurian Railway
1898 3 [June 9] Convention on Hong Kong
1901 1901 [Sep. 7] Boxer Protocol Boxer Protocol Boxer Protocol Boxer Protocol Boxer Protocol also Germany & Austro- Hungary • access to the Emperor on demand, according to specified etiquette
-banning of arms imports
-foreign policing of Legation Quarter
-forced destruction of specified defenses
-stationing of for. troops at specified points
1902 1902 [Apr. 8] Convention with Regard to Manchuria M. Paul Lessar Prince Qing Wang Wenshao
1903 1903 [Oct. 8] Treaty of Shanghai
1904 1904 [ Treaty on Tibet
1905 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth [Japan-Russia]
1906 1906 [Apr. 27] Treaty on Tibet
1908 1908 [Apr. 20] Treaty on Tibet Trade
1911 1911 [May 8] Treaty Concerning Opium
1915 1915
1919 1919 Treaty of Versailles
1921 1921 9-Power Treaty
1924 1924 [May 31] Agreement on General Principles...& 6 Declarations Lev M. Karakhan V.K. Wellington Koo Whiting: 208ff Whiting: 276
1928 1928 Treaty Concerning Tariff Regulation
1943 1 1943 Sino-British Treaty • abolition of extraterritoriality -C. Y. Chao, "Chinese Diplomatic Practice and Treaty Relations," pp 58ff
1943 2 Sino-American Treaty • abolition of extraterritoriality -C. Y. Chao, "Chinese Diplomatic Practice and Treaty Relations," pp 52ff
1945 1945 [Aug. 14] Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship Joseph Stalin T.V. Soong Tsou 1: 270ff
1946 1946 [Nov. 4] Sino-American Treaty of Commerce & Navigation John Leighton Stuart Robert Lacy Smyth Wang Shijie Wang Huazheng
1947 1947