1945, Friendship-Alliance - Soviet Union

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TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC
OF CHINA AND THE U.S.S.R.

(Moscow, August 14, 1945)

            THE President of the National Government of the Republic of China, and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,

            Desirous of strengthening the friendly relations that have always existed between China and the U.S.S.R., through an alliance and good neighborly post-war collaboration,

            Determined to assist each other in the struggle against aggression on the part of enemies of the United Nations in this world war, and to collaborate in the common war against Japan until her unconditional surrender,

            Expressing their unswerving aspiration to cooperate in the cause of maintaining peace and security for the benefit of the peoples of both countries and of all the peace-loving nations,

            Acting upon the principles enunciated in the joint declaration of the United Nations of January 1, 1942, in the four power Declaration signed in Moscow on October 30, 1943, and in the Charter of the International Organization of the United Nations,

            Have decided to conclude the present Treaty to this effect and appointed as their plenipotentiaries—

The President of the National Government of the Republic of China:

His Excellency Dr. Wang Shih-chieh, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China;

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.:

His Excellency Mr. V.M. Molotov, the People’s Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the U.S.S.R.,

Who, after exchanging their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows:

Article I
            The High Contracting Parties undertake in association with the other United Nations to wage war against Japan until final victory is won.  The High Contracting Parties undertake mutually to render to one another all necessary military and other assistance and support in this war.

Article II
            The High Contracting Parties undertake not to enter into separate negotiations with Japan and not to conclude, without mutual consent, any armistice or peace treaty either with the present Japanese Government or with any other government or authority set up in Japan which do not renounce all aggressive intentions.

Article III
            The High Contracting Parties undertake after the termination of the war against Japan to take jointly all measures in their power to render impossible a repetition of aggression and violation of the peace by Japan.

            In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties becoming involved in hostilities with Japan in consequence of an attack by the latter against the said Contracting Party, the other High Contracting Party shall at once give to the Contracting Party so involved in hostilities all the military and other support and assistance with the means in its power.

            This article shall remain in force until such time as the organization “The United Nations” may on request of the two High Contracting Parties be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by Japan.

Article IV
            Each High Contracting Party undertakes not to conclude any alliance and not to take part in any coalition directed against the other High Contracting Party.

Article V
            The High Contracting Parties, having regard to the interests of the security and economic development of each of them, agree to work together in close and friendly collaboration after the coming of peace and to act according to the principles of mutual respect for their sovereignty and territorial integrity and of non-interference in the internal affairs of the other contracting party.

Article VI
            The High Contracting Parties agree to render each other every possible economic assistance in the post-war period with a view to facilitating and accelerating reconstruction in both countries and to contributing to the cause of world prosperity.

Article VII
            Nothing in this treaty shall be so construed as may affect the rights or obligations of the high Contracting Parties as members of the organization “The United Nations.”

Article VIII
            The present Treaty shall be ratified in the shortest possible time.  The exchange of the instruments of ratification shall take place as soon as possible in Chungking.

            The Treaty comes into force immediately upon its ratification and shall remain in force for a term of thirty years.

            If neither of the High Contracting Parties has given notice, a year before the expiration of the term, of its desire to terminate the Treaty, it shall remain valid for an unlimited time, each of the High Contracting Parties being able to terminate its operation by giving notice to that effect one year in advance.

            In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty and affixed their seals to it.

            Done in Moscow, the fourteenth august, 1945, corresponding to the Fourteenth day of the Eighth month of the Thirty-fourth year of the Chinese Republic, in two copies, each one in the Russian and Chinese languages, both texts being equally authoritative.

THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE
SUPREME SOVIET OF THE
U.S.S.R.
THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE PRESIDENT
OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE
REPUBLIC OF CHINA

The People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs (Molotov) to the Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs (Wang)

 August 14, 1945

YOUR EXCELLENCY:

            With reference to the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance signed today between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R., I have the honor to put on record the understanding between the High Contracting Parties as follows:

            1.  In accordance with the spirit of the aforementioned Treaty, and in order to put into effect its aims and purposes, the Government of the U.S.S.R. agrees to render to China moral support and aid in military supplies and other material resources, such support to be entirely given to the National Government as the central government of China.

            2.  In the course of conversations regarding Dairen and Port Arthur and regarding the joint operation of the Chinese Changchun Railway, the Government of the U.S.S.R. regarded the Three Eastern Provinces as part of China and reaffirmed its respect for China’s full sovereignty over the Three Eastern Provinces and recognize their territorial and administrative integrity.

            3.  As for the recent developments in Sinkiang the Soviet Government confirms that, as stated in Article V of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, it has no intention of interfering in the internal affairs of China.

            If Your Excellency will be so good as to confirm that the understanding is correct as set forth in the preceding paragraphs, the present note and Your Excellency’s reply thereto will constitute a part of the aforementioned Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.

            I take [etc.]

V.M. MOLOTOV

 

 

The Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs (Wang) to the People’s Commissar for foreign Affairs (Molotov)

August 14, 1945.

 YOUR EXCELLENCY:

            I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of Your Excellency’s Note of today’s date reading as follows:

            “With reference to the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance signed today between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R., I have the honor to put on record the understanding between the High Contracting Parties as follows:

            1.  In accordance with the spirit of the aforementioned Treaty, and in order to put into effect its aims and purposes, the Government of the U.S.S.R. agrees to render to China moral support and aid in military supplies and other material resources, such support to be entirely given to the National Government as the central government of China.

            2.  In the course of conversations regarding Dairen and Port Arthur and regarding the joint operation of the Chinese Changchun Railway, the Government of the U.S.S.R. regarded the Three Eastern Provinces as part of China and reaffirmed its respect for China’s full sovereignty over the Three Eastern Provinces and recognize their territorial and administrative integrity.

            3.  As for the recent developments in Sinkiang the Soviet Government confirms that, as stated in Article V of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, it has no intention of interfering in the internal affairs of China.

            If Your Excellency will be so good as to confirm that the understanding is correct as set forth in the preceding paragraphs, the present note and Your Excellency’s reply thereto will constitute a part of the aforementioned Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.”

            I have the honour to confirm that the understanding is correct as set forth above.

            I avail [etc.]

WANG SHIH-CHIEH

 

The Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs (Wang) to the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs (Molotov)

August 14, 1945.

 YOUR EXCELLENCY:

            In view of the desire repeatedly expressed by the people of Outer Mongolia for their independence, the Chinese Government declares that after the defeat of Japan should a plebiscite of the Outer Mongolian people confirm this desire, the Chinese Government will recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia with the existing boundary as its boundary.

            The above declaration will become binding upon the ratification of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R. signed on August 14, 1945.

            I avail [etc.]

WANG SHIH-CHIEH

The People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs (Molotov) to the Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs (Wang)

August 14, 1945.

YOUR EXCELLENCY:

            I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of Your Excellency’s Note reading as follows:

            “In view of the desire repeatedly expressed by the people of Outer Mongolia for their independence, the Chinese Government declares that after the defeat of Japan should a plebiscite of the Outer Mongolian people confirm this desire, the Chinese Government will recognize the independence of Outer Mongolia with the existing boundary as its boundary.

            The above declaration will become binding upon the ratification of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R. signed on August 14, 1945.”

            The Soviet Government has duly taken note of the above communication of the Government of the Chinese Republic and hereby expresses its satisfaction therewith, and it further states that the Soviet Government will respect the political independence and territorial integrity of the People’s Republic of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia).

            I avail [etc.]

V.M. MOLOTOV

 

 

Agreement Concerning Dairen

            IN VIEW of a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance having been concluded between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R. and of the pledge by the latter that it will respect Chinese sovereignty in the control of all of Manchuria as an integral part of China;  and with the object of ensuring that the U.S.S.R.’s interest in Dairen as a port of entry and exit for its goods shall be safeguarded, the Republic of China agrees:

            1.  To declare Dairen a free port open to the commerce and shipping of all nations.

            2.  The Chinese Government agrees to apportion in the mentioned port for lease to the U.S.S.R. wharfs and warehouses on the basis of separate agreement.

            3.  The administration of Dairen shall belong to China.

            The harbor-master and deputy harbor-master will be appointed by the Chinese Eastern Railway and South Manchurian Railway in agreement with the Mayor.  The harbor-master shall be a Russian national, and the deputy harbor-master shall be a Chinese national.

            4.  In peacetime Dairen is not included in the sphere of efficacy of the naval base regulations, determined by the Agreement on Port Arthur of August 14, 1945, and shall be subject to the military supervision or control established in this zone only in case of war against Japan.

            5.  Goods entering the free port from abroad for through transit to Soviet territory on the Chinese Eastern and South Manchurian Railways and goods coming from Soviet territory on the said railways into the free port for export shall be free from customs duties.  Such goods shall be transported in sealed cars.

            Goods entering China from the free port shall pay the Chinese import duties, and goods going out of other parts of China into the free port shall pay the Chinese export duties as long as they continue to be collected.

            6.  The term of this agreement shall be thirty years and this Agreement shall come into force upon its ratification.

Protocol to the Agreement on Dairen

             1.  At the request of the U.S.S.R. the Chinese Government leases to the U.S.S.R. free of charge one half of all port installations and equipment.  The term of lease shall be thirty years.  The remaining half of port installations and equipment shall be reserved for the use of China.

            The expansion or re-equipment of the port shall be made by agreement between China and the U.S.S.R.

            2.  It is agreed that the sections of the Chinese Changchun Railway running from Dairen to Mukden that lie within the region of the Port Arthur naval base shall not be subject to any military supervision or control established in the region.

 

 

Agreement on Port Arthur

            In conformity with and for the implementation of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R., the High Contracting Parties have agreed as follows:

Article I

            With a view to strengthening the security of China and the U.S.S.R. against further aggression by Japan, the Government of the Republic of China agrees to the joint use by the two countries of Port Arthur as a naval base.

Article II

            The precise boundary of the area provided in Article I is described in the Annex and shown in the map (Annex 1).

Article III

            The High Contracting Parties agree that Port Arthur, as an exclusive naval base, will be used only by Chinese and Soviet military and commercial vessels.

            There shall be established a Sino-Soviet Military Commission to handle the matters of joint use of the abovementioned naval base.  The Commission shall consist of two Chinese and three Soviet representatives.  The Chairman of the Commission shall be appointed by the Soviet side and the Vice Chairman shall be appointed by the Chinese side.

Article IV

            The Chinese Government entrusts to the Soviet Government the defence of the naval base.  The Soviet Government may erect at its own expense such installations as are necessary for the defence of the naval base.

Article V

            The Civil Administration of the whole area will be Chinese.  The leading posts of the Civil Administration will be appointed by the Chinese Government taking into account Soviet interests in the area.

            The leading posts of the civil administration in the city of Port Arthur are appointed and dismissed by the Chinese Government in agreement with the Soviet military command.

            The proposals which the Soviet military commander in that area may address to the Chinese civil administration in order to safeguard security and defence will be fulfilled by the said administration.  In cases of disagreement, such cases shall be submitted to the Sino-Soviet military commission for consideration and decision.

Article VI

            The Government of the U.S.S.R. have the right to maintain in the region mentioned in Article II, their army, navy and air force and to determine their location.

Article VII

            The Government of the U.S.S.R. also undertakes to establish and keep up lighthouses and other installations and signs necessary for the security of navigation of the area.

Article VIII

            After the termination of this agreement all the installations and public property installed or constructed by the U.S.S.R. in the area shall revert without compensation to the Chinese Government.

Article IX

            The present agreement is concluded for thirty years.  It comes into force on the day of its ratification.

            In faith whereof the plenipotentiaries of the High Contracting Parties have signed the present agreement and affixed thereto their seals.  The present agreement is made in two copies, each in the Russian and Chinese language, both texts being authoritative.

            Done at Moscow, August 14, 1945, corresponding to the 14th day of the 8th month of the 34th year of the Chinese Republic.

 

THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE
PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET OF THE U.S.S.R.
THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE PRESIDENT
OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE
REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

 

 

ANNEX  1 (to “Agreement on Port Arthur”)

             The territory of the area of the naval base provided for by Article II of the Agreement on Port Arthur is situated south of the line which begins on the west coast of Liaotung Peninsula—south of Housantaowan—and follows a general easterly direction across Shihe Station and the point of Tsoukiachutse to the east coast of the same peninsula, excluding the town of Dalny (Dairen).

            All the islands situated in the waters adjoining the west side of the area on Liaotung Peninsula established by the Agreement, and south of the line passing through the points 39°00’ North latitude, 120°49’ East longitude; 39°20’ North latitude, 121°31’ East longitude, and beyond in a general northeasterly direction along the axis of the fairway leading to port Pulantien to the initial point on land, are included in the area of the naval base.

            All the islands situated within the waters adjoining the eastern part of the area on Liaotung Peninsula and south of the line passing from the terminal point on land in an easterly direction towards the point 39°20’ North latitude, 123°08’ East longitude, and farther southeast through the point 39°00’ North latitude, 123°16’ East longitude, are included in the area.  (See attached map, scale 1:500,000.)

            The boundary line of the district will be demarcated on the spot by a mixed Soviet-Chinese Commission.  The Commission shall establish the boundary posts and, when need arises, buoys on the water, compile a detailed description of this line, enter it on a topographical map drawn to the scale of 1:25,000 and the water boundary on a naval map drawn to the scale of 1:300,000.

            The time when the Commission shall start its work is subject to special agreement between the parties.

            Descriptions of the boundary line of the area and the maps of this line compiled by the above Commission are subject to approval by both Governments.

W.S.                        V.M.

 

 

Agreement Regarding Relations Between the Chinese Administration and the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Forces After the Entry of Soviet Troops into the “three Eastern Provinces” of China During the Present Joint Military Operations Against Japan

            THE President of the National Government of China and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, desirous that the relations between the Chinese Administration and the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Forces after the entry of Soviet troops into the “Three Eastern Provinces” of China during the present joint military operations against Japan should be governed by the spirit of friendship and alliance existing between the two countries, have agreed on the following:

            1.  After the Soviet troops enter the “Three Eastern Provinces” of China as a result of military operations, the supreme authority and responsibility in all matters relating to the prosecution of the war will be vested, in the zone of operations and for the time required for the operations, in the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces.

            2.  A Chinese National Government representative and staff will be appointed for the recovered territory, whose duties will be:

            (a)  To establish and direct, in accordance with the laws of China, an administration for the territory cleared of the enemy.

            (b)  To establish the cooperation between the Chinese armed forces, both regular and irregular, and the Soviet forces in recovered territory.

            (c)  To ensure the active cooperation of the Chinese administration with the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces and, specifically to give the local authorities direction to this effect, being guided by the requirements and wishes of the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces.

            3.  To ensure contact between the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces and the Chinese National Government representative, a Chinese military mission will be appointed to the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces.

            4.  In the zone under the supreme authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces, the Chinese National Government administration for the recovered territory will maintain contact with the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces through the Chinese National Government representative.

            5.  As soon as any part of the liberated territory ceases to be a zone of immediate military operations, the Chinese National Government will assume full authority in the direction of public affairs and will render the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces every assistance and support through its civil and military bodies.

            6.  All persons belonging to the Soviet forces on Chinese territory will be under the jurisdiction of the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces.  All Chinese, whether civilian or military, will be under Chinese jurisdiction.  This jurisdiction will also extend to the civilian population on Chinese territory even in the case of offenses against the Soviet armed forces, with the exception of offenses committed in the zone of military operations under the jurisdiction of the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces, such cases coming under the jurisdiction of the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces.  In disputable cases the question will be settled by mutual agreement between the Chinese National Government representative and the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet forces.

            7.  With regard to currency matters after the entry of Soviet troops into the “Three Eastern Provinces” of China, a separate agreement shall be reached.

            8.  The present Agreement comes into force immediately upon the ratification of the Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between China and the U.S.S.R. signed this day.  The Agreement has been done in two copies, each in the Chinese and Russian languages.  Both texts are equally valid.

 

            Date______________________

 

ON THE AUTHORIZATION OF THE
NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE
REPUBLIC OF CHINA.
ON THE AUTHORIZATION OF THE GOV-
ERNMENT OF THE UNION OF SOVIET
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS.

 

 

Agreement Between the Republic of China and the U.S.S.R. Concerning the Chinese Changchun Railway

             THE President of the Republic of China and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., desiring to strengthen the friendly relations and economic bonds between the two countries on the basis of the full observation of the rights and interests of each other, have agreed as follows:

Article I

            After the Japanese armed forces are driven out of the Three Eastern Provinces of China the main trunk line of the Chinese Eastern Railway and the South Manchurian Railway from Manchouli to Suifenho and from Harbin to Dairen and Port Arthur united into one railway under the name “Chinese Changchun Railway” shall be in joint ownership of the U.S.S.R. and the Republic of China and shall be operated by them jointly.

            There shall be joint ownership and operation only of those lands acquired and railway auxiliary lines built by the Chinese Eastern Railway during the time of Russian and joint Sino-Soviet administration and by the South Manchurian Railway during the time of Russian administration and which are designed for direct needs of these railways as well as the subsidiary enterprises built during the said periods and directly serving these railways.  All the other railway branches, subsidiary enterprises and lands shall be in the complete ownership of the Chinese Government.

            The joint operation of the aforementioned railway shall be undertaken by a single management under Chinese sovereignty and as a purely commercial transportation enterprise.

Article II

            The High Contracting Parties agree that their joint ownership of the railway shall be in equal shares and shall not be alienable in whole or in part.

Article III

            The High Contracting Parties agree that for the joint operation of the said railway the Sino-Soviet Company of the Chinese Changchun Railway shall be formed.  The Company shall have a Board of Directors to be composed of ten members of whom five shall be appointed by the Chinese Government and five by the Soviet Government.  The Board of Directors shall be in Changchun.

Article IV

            The Chinese Government shall appoint one of the Chinese Directors as President of the Board of Directors and one as the Assistant President.  The Soviet Government shall appoint one of the Soviet Directors as Vice-President of the Board of Directors, and one as the Assistant Vice-President.  Seven persons shall constitute a quorum.  When questions are decided by the Board, the vote of the President of the Board of Directors shall be counted as two votes. 

            Questions on which the Board of Directors cannot reach an agreement shall be submitted to the Governments of the Contracting Parties for consideration and settlement in an equitable and friendly spirit.

Article V

            The Company shall establish a Board of Auditors which shall be composed of six members of whom three are appointed by the Chinese Government and three appointed by the Soviet Government.  The Chairman of the Board of Auditors shall be elected from among the Soviet auditors, and Vice-Chairman from among the Chinese auditors.  When questions are decided by the Board the vote of the Chairman shall be counted as two votes.  Five persons shall constitute a quorum.

Article VI

            For the administration of current affairs the Board of Directors shall appoint a Manager of the Chinese Changchun Railway from among Soviet citizens and one assistant manager from among Chinese citizens.

Article VII

            The Board of Auditors shall appoint a General-Comptroller from among Chinese citizens, and an Assistant General-Comptroller from among Soviet citizens.

Article VIII

            The Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs of the various departments, Chiefs of sections, and stationmasters at important stations of the railway shall be appointed by the Board of directors.  The Manager of the Railway has the right to recommend candidates for the abovementioned posts.  Individual members of the Board of Directors may also recommend such candidates in agreement with the Manager.  If the Chief of a department is a national of China, the Assistant Chief shall be a national of the Soviet Union, and vice versa.  The appointment of the Chiefs and assistant chiefs of departments and Chiefs of sections and stationmasters shall be made in accordance with the principle of equal representation between the nationals of China and nationals of the Soviet Union.

Article IX

            The Chinese Government will bear the responsibility for the protection of the said Railway.

            The Chinese Government will also organize and supervise the railway guards who shall protect the railway buildings, installations and other property and freight from destruction, loss and robbery, and shall maintain the normal order on the railway.  As regards the duties of the police in execution of this Article, they will be determined by the Chinese Government in consultation with the Soviet Government.

Article X

            Only during the time of war against Japan the railway may be used for the transportation of Soviet troops.  The Soviet Government has the right to transport by the abovementioned railway for transit purpose military goods in sealed cars without customs inspection.  The guarding of such military goods shall be undertaken by the railway police and the Soviet Union shall not send any armed escort.

Article XI

            Goods for through transit and transported by the Chinese Changchun Railway from Manchouli to Suifenho or vice versa and also from Soviet territory to the ports of Dairen and Port Arthur or vice versa shall be free from Chinese Customs duties or any other taxes and dues, but on entering Chinese territory such goods shall be subject to Chinese Customs inspection and verification.

Article XII

            The Chinese Government shall ensure, on the basis of a separate agreement, that the supply of coal for the operation of the railway will be fully secured.

 

Article XIII

            The railway shall pay taxes to the Government of the Republic of China the same as are paid by the Chinese state railways.

Article XIV

            Both Contracting Parties agree to provide the Board of Directors of the Chinese Changchun Railway with working capital the amount of which will be determined by the Statutes of the Railway.

            Profits and losses and exploitation of the railway shall be equally divided between the Parties.

Article XV

            For the working out in Chungking of the Statutes of joint operation of the railway the High Contracting Parties undertake within one month of the signing of the present Agreement, to appoint their representatives — three representatives from each Party.  The Statutes shall be worked out within two months and reported to the two Governments for their approval.

Article XVI

            The determination, in accordance with the provisions in Article I, of the properties to be included in the joint ownership and operations of the railway by China and the U.S.S.R. shall be made by a Commission to be composed of three representatives each of the two Governments.  The Commission shall be constituted in Chungking within one month after the signing of the present Agreement and shall terminate its work within three months after the joint operation of the railway shall have begun.

            The decision of the Commission shall be reported to the two Governments for their approval.

Article XVII

            The term of this present Agreement shall be thirty years.  After the expiration of the term of the present Agreement, the Chinese Changchun Railway with all its properties shall be transferred without compensation to the ownership of the Republic of China.

Article XVIII

            The present Agreement shall come into force from the date of its ratification. 

            Done in Moscow, August 14, 1945, corresponding to the 14th day of the 8th month of the 34th year of the Chinese Republic, in two copies, each in the Russian and Chinese languages, both texts being equally authoritative.

THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE
PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME
SOVIET OF THE U.S.S.R.  
THE PLENIPOTENTIARY OF THE PRESI-
DENT OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
OF THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA.