1858, Aigun - Russia
TREATY OF AIGUN, 1858
The great Empire of Russia, the Governor-General of Western Siberia acting for it, and also Lieutenant-General Nicholas Muraviev, aide-de-camp to his majesty Emperor Alexander Nicolayevitch;
And the Great Ta-Tsing Empire, with Prince I Chan, aide-de-camp, noble of the Court, and Commander-in-Chief of the Amur, acting for it;
Wish to establish an internal and intimate friendship between their two empires. In the interests of their subjects they have signed this accord:
The left bank of the Amur River, from the Argun River to the mouth of the Amur, will belong to the Empire of Russia, and its right bank, downstream as far as the Ussuri, will belong to the Ta-Tsing Empire. The territories and places situated between the Ussuri River and the sea will continue, as before, to be held in common by the Ta-Tsing Empire and the Russian Empire, with a settling of the frontier to come eventually. Only ships of the Ta-Tsing and Russian empires may navigate the Amur River, the Sungari, and the Ussuri. All others are excluded. The Manchu inhabitants of the left bank of the Amur, from the Zeya River to the village of Hormoldzin to the south, will always keep the place of dwelling which they have had during the time of Manchu government, and Russian inhabitants may not vex or offend them.
In the interests of good understanding among the subjects in question, the shore-dwellers of the Ussuri, the Amur, and the Sungari, are allowed to trade together, and the authorities must reciprocally protect traders on both shores.
The stipulations arrived at by the Plenipotentiary of the Empire of Russia, Governor-General Muraviev; and the Commander-in-Chief of the Amur, I Chan, who was the Ta-Tsing’s representative, will be well and fully carried out, for ever. To this purpose, Governor-General Muraviev, for Russia, put a copy of this Treaty in the hands of Prince I Chan. It was written in Russian and Manchu. Prince I Chan, for his part, placed a copy (this one written in another pair of languages: Manchu and Mongol) in the hand of Governor-General Muraviev.
All the stipulations herein contained will be published for the surrounding populations, the inhabitants of the edges of the two Empires.
May 16, 1858, City of Aigun