1895, Complementary Convention on Tongking Border - France

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(Signed at Beijing, June 20, 1895)

            The Commisioners named by the two Governments to reconnoiter the last part of the frontier between China and Tongking (from the Red River to the Mekong), having finished their work:

            M. Auguste Gérard, Minister Plenipotentiary, Envoy Extraordinary of the French Republic in China, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Grand Cross of the Order of Independent Montenegro, Grand Officer of the Royal Order of Charles III of Spain, Grand Officer of the Royal Order of the Italian Crown, etc., on the one part;

            And His Higness Prince Qing, Prince of the first degree, President of the Tsungli Yamen, etc.,

            And His Excellence Siu Yongyi, member of the Tsungli Yamen and of the Imperial Grand Council, Vice-President of the Left of the Ministry of the Interior, etc., on the other;

            Acting in the names of their respective Governments and mandated to this end with the full powers which, after their communication have been found in good and due form, have decided to embody in the present Act the following arrangements aimed at correcting and completing the Convention signed at Beijing on June 26, 1887, the minutes and the maps then having been drawn up and signed by the French and Chinese Commissioners still being in full force:—

Article I

            The line of the frontier between Yunnan and Annam (map of the second section), from point R to point S, is modified thus:

            “The boundary line leaves point R, extending northeastward as far as Man-mei; from Man-mei, following an west-east direction as far as Nan-na, on the Ts’ing-chouei-River, leaving Man-mei to Annam and the territories of Mong-t’ong-chang-ts’ouen—Mong-t’ong-chan, Mong-t’ong-chang-ts’ouen and Mong-t’ong-hia-ts’ouen—to China.”

Article II

            The line of the fifth section between long-po-tchai and the Black River is modified as follows:

            “From Long-po-tchai (fifth section), the common frontier of Yunnan and Annam goes up the Long-po river as far as its confluence with the Hong-yai river, at the point marked A on the map. From point A it follows the general direction north-northwest  and the watershed to the point where the P’ing-ho River has its source.

            “From this point the frontier follows the course of the P’ing-ho, then that of the Mou-k’i-ho to where it joins the Ta-pao-ho, from where it follows this river to its conflunece with the Nan-kong-ho, then the course of the Nan-kong-ho to its confluence with the Nan-na-ho.

            “The frontier afterwards climbs the course of the Pao-pao-ho as far as its confluence with the Kouang-Sse-ho, then the course of the Kouang-Sse-ho and following that the watershed to the confluence of the Nam-la-pi and the Nam-la-ho and, finally, the Nam-la-ho to its confluence with the Black River, then the middle of the Black River as far as Nam-nap or Nan-ma-ho.”

Article III.

            The common Yunnan-Annam frontier, between the Black River, at its confluence with the Nam-nap, and the Mekong, runs as follows:

            “Leaving the confluence of the Black River and the Nam-nap, the frontier follows the course of the Nam-nap to its source, then in a southwestly and westerly direction, the watershed to the sources of the Nam-kang and the Nam-wou.

            “Leaving the sources of the Nam-wou, the frontier follows the watershed between the Nam-wou basin and the basin of the Nam-la, leaving to China, to the west, Ban-noi, I-pang, I-wou, and the six tea mountains and, to Annam, to the east, Mong-wou and Wou-te and the confederation of the Hua-panh-ha-tang-hoc. The frontier goes in a north-south direction southeast  as far as the sources of the Nan-nuo-ho, then it moves, along the watershed, in a west-north-westerly direction, the valleys of the Nan-ouo-ho and its tributaries to the left of Nam-la, as far as the confluence of the Mekong and the Nam-la, to the northwest of Muong-poung. The territory of Moung-mang and of Muong-jouen is left to China. As for the territory of the eight salty springs (Pa-fa-tchai), it remains to Annam.

Article IV.

            The commissioned agents or authorities designated by the two Governments are charged with demarcation conforming to the maps drawn up and signed by the Delimitation Commission and to the line herein.

Article V.

            All arrangements, relating to the delimitation between France and China, not modified by the present Act, remain in full force.

            The present Complementary Convention, as well as the Convention of Delimitation of June 26, 1887, will be ratified immediately by presentation to His Majesty the Emperor of China and, after having been ratifiedby the President of the French Republic, the exchange of the ratifications to follow in Beijing with as little delay as possible.

            Done at Beijing, in four copies, June 20, 1895, corresponding to the 28th day of the fifth month of the 21st year of Guangxu.

[L.S.]      (Signed)          A. GÉRARD.

[L.S.]      (Signed)          QING.

[L.S.]      (Signed)          SIU.