1887, Tonkin Border - France
CONVENTION CONCERNING THE DELIMITATION OF THE BORDER BETWEEN CHINA AND TONKIN
(Signed at Beijing, June 26, 1887)
The commissioners named by the President of the French Republic and by His Majesty the Emperor of China, in execution of Article 3 of the Treaty of 9 June 1885, for the surveying of the border between China and Tonkin, have finished their work:
M. Ernest Constans, Deputy [of the National Assembly], former minister of the interior and of faiths, government commissioner, special envoy of the Republic of France, on the one hand;
And His Highness Prince Qing, Prince of the second rank, president of the Zongli Yamen, assisted by
His Excellency Sun Yuwen, member of the Zongli Yamen, first vice-president of the ministry of public works, on the other hand;
Acting in the name of their respective governments:
Have decided to record in the present act the following arrangements for the purpose of definitively settling the delimitation of the said border:—
1. The minutes and the maps annexed hereto, which have been drawn up and signed by the French and Chinese commissioners are and shall remain approved.
2. Those points in the accord on which the two commissions could not agree, and the corrections envisaged by the second paragraph of Article 3 of the Treaty of 9 June 1885, are settled as follows:
In Guangdong, it is agreed that the contested points situated to the east and northeast of Mangjie [Monkaï], beyond the border as was fixed by the delimitation commission, are assigned to China. The isles which are to the east of the meridian of 105° 43' longitude east of Paris, which is to say of the north-south line passing through the eastern point of the island of Chagu [Tch’a-Kou or Ouan-chan (Tra-co)] and forming the border, are similarly assigned to China. The Jiutou [Go-tho] islands and other islands which are to the west of this meridian belong to Annam.
Chinese guilty or accused of crimes or offences who seek refuge in these islands, shall, in conformity to the stipulations in Article XVII of the Treaty of 25 April 1886, be sought out, arrested and extradited by the French authorities.
On the border of Yunnan, it is agreed that the line of demarcation follow the following path:
From Goutouzhai [Keou-teou-tchai; Cao-dao-trai] on the left bank of the Xiaoduzhou River [Siao-tou-tcheou-ho; Tien-do-chu-ha], point M on the second section of the map, it heads for 50 lis (20 kilometers) directly from west to east, leaving to China the places of Jujiangshe [Tsui-kiang-cho] or Juyishe [Tsui-y-cho; Tu-nghia-xa], Jumeishe [Tsui-mei-cho; Tu-mi-xa], Jiangfeishe [Kiang-fei-cho] or Yifeishe [Nghia-fi-xa], which are to the north of this line, and to Annam, that of Youpengshe [Yeou-p'ong-cho; Hu-bang-xa] which is to the south, as far as the points marked P and Q on the annexed maps, where it cuts the two branches of the second tributary to the right of the Hei River [Heï-ho; Hac-ha] or Duzhou River [Tou-tcheou-ho; Do-chu-ha]. Leaving the point Q, the line veers to the southeast for about 15 lis [6 kilometers] to point R, leaving to China the territory of Nandan [Nan-tan; Nan-don] to the north of this point R; then, leaving this said point, the line climbs to the northeast to the point S, following the direction traced on the map as the line R-S, the course of the Nandeng River [Nan-teng-ho; Nam-dang-ha] and the territories of Manmei [Man-mei; Man-mi], Mengtongshangcun [Meng-tong-chan-ts'oun; Muong-dong-truong-thon], Mengtongshan [Meng-toung-chan; Muong-dong-son], Mengtongzhongcun [Meng-toung-tchoung-ts'oun; Muong-dong-truong-thon] and Mengtongxiacun [Meng-toung-chia-ts'oun; Muong-dong-ha-thon] staying with Annam.
Leaving point S (Mengtongxiacun or Muong-dong-ha-thon), the middle of the Qingshui River [Ts'ing-chouei-ho; Than-thuy-ha] represents, until it reaches its confluent, the adopted border.
From point T, its path follows the middle of the Clear River to the point X, at the level of Chuantou [Tch'ouan-teou; Thuyen-dan].
From point X, it climbs northward to the point Y, passing through Baishiya [Pai-che-yai; Bach-thach-giai] and Laoaikan [Lao-ai-k'an; Lao-hai-kan], with half of each of those places belonging to China and half to Annam, that to the east belonging to Annam and that to the west to China.
From point Y, it runs, in a northward direction, along the right bank of a small affluent to the left of the Clear River which receives it between Bianbaoka [Pien-pao-kia; Bien-bao-kha] and Beibao [Pei-pao; Bac-bao], afterwards reaching Gaomabai [Kao-ma-pai; Cao-ma-bach], point Z, where it joins the line on the third section [of the map].
Leaving Longbozhai [Long-po-tchai] (fifth section), the common border of Yunnan and Annam climbs the course of the Longbo River [Long-po-ho] to the point of its confluence with the Qingshui River, marked A on the map; from point A, it follows the general direction northwest to southwest to the point indicated B on the map, the place where the Saijiang River [Saï-kiang-ho] receives the Mianshuiwan [Mien-chouei-ouan]; in doing so, the border leaves to China the course of the Qingshui River.
From point B, the border is in the direction east-west to the point C where it meets the Dengtiao River [Teng-tiao-tchiang] below Dashujiao [Ta-chou-tchio]. That which is south of this line belongs to Annam, that which is to the north to China.
From point C, it descends again to the south, following the middle of the Dengtiao River to its confluence, at point D, with the Jinzi River [Tsin-tse-ho].
It then follows the Jinzi River for about 30 lis and continues in an east-west direction to the point E, where it meets the little creek which flows into the Black River (Heijiang [Hei-tçiang or Hac-giang]) to the east of Lake Mengbang [Meng-pang]. The middle of this creek serves as the border from point E to point F.
Leaving point F, the middle of the Black River serves as the border to the west.
The Chinese local authorities and the agents designated by the Resident-General of the French Republic in Annam and Tonkin shall be charged with the marking out, in conformity with the maps prepared and signed by the delimitation commission, and the line therein.
Annexed to the present Act are three maps in two copies, signed and sealed by the two parties. On these maps, the new border is portrayed by a red line and indicated on the Yunnan maps by the letters of the French alphabet and the Chinese cyclical characters.
Made in Beijing, in duplicate, 26 June 1887.
(Signature and seal of the Chinese Plenipotentiary.)
(Seal of the French Legation at Beijing)
Art. 2.—The minister of foreign affairs is charged with carrying out the present decree.
Done at Rambouillet, October 19, 1896
For the President of the Republic:
the minister of foreign affairs,