1886, Burma-Tibet - Britain

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Convention Relating to Burma and Thibet [Tibet], 1886*


            Whereas Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and His Majesty the Emperor of China, being sincerely desirous to maintain and perpetuate the relations of friendship and good understanding which now exist between their respective Empires, and to promote and extend the commercial intercourse between their subjects and dominions, the following Convention has been agreed upon and concluded:

            On the part of Great Britain, by Nicholas Roderick O’Conor, Esquire, Her Majesty’s Secretary of Legation at Washington, and lately Her Majesty’s Chargé d’Affaires in China, Companion of the most distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, duly empowered thereunto;

            And on the part of China, by His Highness Prince Ch’ing, President of the Tsungli Yamen, and His Excellency Sun, Minister of the Tsungli Yamen, Senior Vice-President of the Board of Works.

Article I.

            Inasmuch as it had been the practice of Burma to send decennial Missions to present articles of local produce, England agrees that the highest authority in Burma shall send the customary decennial Missions, the members of the Mission to be of Burmese race.

Article II.

            China agrees that in all matters whatsoever appertaining to the authority and rule which England is now exercising in Burma, England shall be free to do whatever she deems fit and proper.

Article III.

            The frontier between Burma and China to be marked by a Delimitation Commission, and the conditions of frontier trade to be settled by a frontier trade Convention, both countries agreeing to protect and encourage trade between China and Burma.

Article IV.

            Inasmuch as inquiry into the circumstances by the Chinese Government has shown the existence of many obstacles to the Mission to Thibet provided for in the separate Article of the Chefoo [Zhifu] Agreement, England consents to countermand the Mission forthwith.

            With regard to the desire of the British Government to consider arrangements for frontier trade between India and Thibet, it will be the duty of the Chinese Government, after careful inquiry into the circumstances, to adopt measures to exhort and encourage the people with a view to the promotion and development of trade. Should it be practicable, the Chinese Government shall then proceed carefully to consider trade regulations; but if insuperable obstacles shall be found to exist, the British Government will not press the matter unduly.

Article V.

            The present Convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in London as soon as possible after the date of the signature thereof.

            In witness whereof the respective negotiators have signed the same and affixed thereunto the seals of their arms.

            Done in triplicate at Peking, this twenty-fourth day of July in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighty-six, corresponding with the Chinese date the twenty-third day of the sixth moon of the twelfth year of Kuang Hsü.





(Signed)            Nicholas Roderick O'Conor





(Monogram)           Ch’ing

(Monogram)           Sun Yü-wen