1846, Guangzhou Convention - Britain
CONVENTION BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND CHINA RELATIVE TO THE ADMISSION OF FOREIGNERS INTO THE CITY OF CANTON AND TO THE EVACUATION OF THE ISLAND OF CHUSAN BY THE BRITISH FORCES*
(Signed at Bocca Tigris, 4th April 1846.)
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the Emperor of China having, with a view to the settlement of all questions between the two Countries, and for the preservation of mutual harmony and good understanding, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say, Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Sir John Francis Davis, a Baronet of the United Kingdom, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty’s colony of Hong Kong, &c. &c., and His Majesty the Emperor of China the High Commissioner Keying, a Member of the Imperial House, a Cabinet Councillor, a Guardian of the Crown Prince, and Governor General of the Two Kwang Provinces;
The Said Plenipotentiaries respectively have, in pursuance of the above-mentioned ends, and after communicating to each other their respective full Powers, and finding them to be in good and due form, agreed upon and concluded the following Articles:
Admission of Foreigners into City of Canton.*
I. His Majesty the Emperor of China having on His own part distinctly stated that, when in the course of time mutual tranquillity shall have been insured it will be safe and right to admit Foreigners into the City of Canton, and the local Authorities being for the present unable to coerce the people of that City, the Plenipotentiaries on either side mutually agree that the execution of the above measure shall be postponed to a more favourable period; but the claim of right is by no means yielded or abandoned on the part of Her Britannic Majesty.
Liberty and Protection of British Subjects outside Canton.*
II. British Subjects shall in the meanwhile enjoy full liberty and protection in the neighbourhood of the outside of the City of Canton within certain limits fixed according to previous Treaty, comprising seventy localities of which the names were communicated by the district magistrates to the British Consul on the 21st November 1845. They may likewise make excursions on the two sides of the river where there are not numerous villages.
British Evacuation of Chusan. The Island never to be ceded to any other Foreign Power.*
III. It is stipulated on the part of His Majesty the Emperor of China that, on the evacuation of Chusan by Her Britannic Majesty’s forces, the said island shall never be ceded to any other foreign Power.
British Protection of Chusan in event of Hostile Attack.*
IV. Her Britannic Majesty consents upon Her part, in case of the attack of an invader, to protect Chusan and its dependencies, and to restore it to the possession of China as of old — but as this stipulation proceeds from the friendly alliance between the two nations, no pecuniary subsidies are to be due from China on this account.
Immediate Evacuation of Chusan by British Troops.*
V. Upon the receipt of the sign manual of His Majesty the Emperor of China to these presents it is agreed, on account of the distance which separates the two Countries, that the island of Chusan shall be immediately delivered over to the Chinese Authorities; and on the ratification of the present convention by Her Britannic Majesty it shall be mutually binding on the High contracting Powers.
Done at Bocca Tigris and signed and sealed by the Plenipotentiaries this fourth day of April, 1846, corresponding with the Chinese date, Taou Kwang, 26th year, 3rd moon, ninth day.
(L.S.) J.F. DAVIS.
(L.S.) KI YING.